Vrste čokolade...

Da li volite da jedete čokoladu? Čokolada, poslastica koja nas privlači raznim ukusima, oblicima i bojama, za mnoge jedan od glavnih razloga zašto volimo kolače i torte, proizvod je dugog i komplikovanog procesa prerade koji počinje sa zrnima tropske biljke Theobroma cacao. Iako je plod ove biljke glavni sastojak čokolade koji joj daje jedinstven ukus, i jedan od glavnih razlog zašto nam čokolada toliko prija, finalni proizvod u kome svi volimo da uživamo određen je različitim količinama kakao maslaca i čokoladnog likvora koje čokolada sadrži, kao i iznosom šećera i drugih sastojaka koji se dodaju u smesu. Zahvaljujući ovoj kombinaciji sastojaka nastale su različite vrste čokolade, od kojih se sa nekima od najpoznatijih možete upoznati u nastavku ovog teksta.

 

Kakao prah: Ovaj nezaslađeni prah jeste čokoladni likvor koji je delimično odmašćen i pretvoren u prah. Kakao prah daje jak čokoladni ukus i dostupan je u dve varijante: “Dutch-processed” ili alkalni i prirodni. Prirodni kakao prah (leva slika ispod) je svetlo-braon boje, sa jakim, izraženim čokoladnim ukusom. Ima blagu kiselost, tako da je najbolje koristiti prirodni kakao prah u receptima u kojima ide soda bikarbona. Alkalni kakao prah je tamnije boje, ima manju kiselost i blag čokoladni ukus. Alkalni kakao prah (desna slika ispod) se preporučuje za recepte u koje ide prašak za pecivo.

 

 

Nezaslađena čokolada: Takođe poznata i kao gorka ili čokolada za kuvanje. Ovo je čist čokoladni likvor, koji se sastoji samo od mlevenih zrna kakaa. Mada izgleda i miriše kao čokolada, ima gorak ukus i nije namenjena za samostalno konzumiranje - najbolje je koristiti je za kuvanje, kada se može kombinovati sa šećerom kako bi bila ukusnija. Zato što zrna kakaa sadrže jednake iznose kakao maslaca i kakao praha, nezaslađena čokolada daje pecivu dubok i bogat čokoladni ukus. Nezaslađena čokolada je osnovni sastojak u svim oblicima čokolade, osim bele čokolade. Kvalitet čokolade zavisi od tipa zrna kakaa koji se koriste i načina na koji su obrađena.

 

 

Crna čokolada: Čokolada koja sadrži čokoladni likvor, šećer, kakao maslac, vanilu i lecitin (kao emulgator). U ovoj čokoladi se ne dodaje mleko u prahu. Sadržaj kakaa u tablama crne čokolade koja je namenjena za prodaju može iznositi od 30% (slatka crna čokolada) do 70-80% za krajnje crne table čokolade. Gorko-slatka čokolada i poluslatka čokolada takođe spadaju u kategoriju crne čokolade. Kvalitet i mešavina kakao zrna, količina i kvaliteta dodatih sastojaka, kao i način obrade određuju kvalitet čokolade. Svaki brend ima svoju specijalnu formulu i metod za obradu.

 

 

Gorko-slatka čokolada: Čokolada koja sadrži najmanje 35% kakaa. Većina gorko-slatkih tabli čokolade sadrži najmanje 50% čokoladnog likvora, dok neke čokolade mogu sadržati čak i do 70-80% čokoladnog likvora. Ova čokolada često ima dublji gorči ukus od slatke crne ili poluslatke čokolade. Ipak, iznos šećera u čokoladi nije određen, tako da tabla gorko-slatke čokolade jednog proizvođača može imati slađi ukus nego ista vrsta čokolade drugog proizvođača.

 

 

Polu-slatka čokolada: Ovo je prvenstveno Američki izraz, koji je popularizovan od strane, Nestle Toll House semi-sweet chocolate chips. Poluslatka čokolada sadrži najmanje 35% kakao, i obično se pretpostavlja da je tamnija od slatke crne čokolade, ali slađa od gorko-slatke. Ipak, nedostatak regulativnih mera koje se tiču iznosa šećera znači da su ove podele relativne i nekonzistentne među brendovima.

 

 

Slatka crna čokolada: jeste crna čokolada u smislu da ne sadrži mleko u prahu, ali ipak sadrži visok procenat šećera i mnogo je slađa od drugih tipova crne čokolade. Mnogi brendovi slatke crne čokolade imaju samo 20-40% kakaa u prahu.

 

 

Mlečna čokolada: pored toga što sadrži kakao maslac i čokoladni likvor, mlečna čokolada sadrži ili kondenzovano mleko (uglavnom Evropske vrste ove čokolade) ili mleko u prahu. Mlečna čokolada mora da sadrži najmanje 10% čokoladnog likvora (u Americi), 3.39% maslaca, i 12% mleka u prahu. Mlečne čokolade su tipično slađe od crne čokolade, imaju svetliju boju i manje izražen čokoladni ukus. Mlečnu čokoladu je teže dovesti u željeno stanje (temperaturnom obradom) i sklonija je pregrevanju.

 

 

Bela čokolada: dobila je svoje ime po kakao maslaca koji sadrži, i ne sadrži čokoladni likvor ili bilo koji drugi kakao produkt. Kao rezultat, nema izražen čokoladni ukus, već obično ima ukus na vanilu ili druge dodate arome. Po zakonu, bela čokolada mora da sadrži minimum 20% kakao maslaca, 14% mleka u prahu i maksimalno 55% šećera. Među belim čokoladama koje su dostupne mogu se naći i one koje umesto kakao maslaca sadrže biljne masti-njih treba izbegavati sa stanovišta ukusa jer ne sadrže kakao proizvode i tehnički ne spadaju u belu čokoladu.

 

 

Kuvertura: Prvenstveno je koriste profesionalni pekari ili poslastičari. Ova čokolada sadrži veoma visok procenat (najmanje 30%) kakao maslaca, kao i visok procenat čokoladnog likvora. Ovaj visok odnos čini je skupocenom ali i takođe znači da je rezultujuća čokolada glatka i topi se brzo i ravnomerno. Kuvertura se prvenstveno koristi za dovođenje čokolade u određeno stanje i kao omotač slatkiša. Dolazi u crnim, mlečnim i belim vrstama čokolade i može se kupiti na internetu u dobro snabdevenim radnjama za ukrašavanje kolača.

 

        

 

Gianduja: Gianduja je ime koje je dato Evropskoj vrsti čokolade koja se pravi od čokoladne paste i paste od oraha. Najčešće se koristi lešnik pasta, ali gianduja se takođe može praviti i sa pastom od badema. Dolazi u mlečnim i crnim vrstama čokolade. Gianduja čokolada može se koristiti kao aroma ili zamena za mlečnu ili crnu čikoladu. Na sobnoj temperaturi je dovoljno mekana da bi se izvaljala ili isekla, ali je previše mekana za oblikovanje.

 

 

"Premaz za slatkiše" čokolada: Odnosi se na slatkiše koji imaju ukus na crnu, mlečnu ili belu čokoladu i kod kojih se umesto kakao maslaca koristi biljna ili palmina mast. Ovi proizvodi su jeftiniji od većine čokolada i ne sadrže značajne količine čokoladnog likvora; s toga, nemaju jak čokoladni ukus ili privlačan ukus u ustima. Međutim, mogu se lako topiti i oblikovati, i s toga se često koriste pri pravljenju slatkiša ili kao umak, jer ne zahtevaju temperaturnu obradu i mogu izdržati visoke ambijetalne temperature. Budite pažljivi da nikada ne pomešate ovu vrstu sa pravom čokoladom, jer se masti ne slažu i rezultujući slatkiš će biti neprivlačan i bledunjav.

 

 

 

 

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